1. these refer to extrinsic factors (i.e. safety, pay,

1.  Introduction
to Motivational Theories

1.1 Concept of Motivation

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 Motivation can be classed as a
management procedure which helps encourages people to work effectively for the
all-inclusive benefit of an organisation, by giving them reason, which are
based on their unfulfilled needs.

Although
capital, human resources and environment all play a role in how an organisation
performs, human resources can be seen as the biggest factor influencing the
performance of an organisation, it is therefore fundamental that organisations
need to motivate its employees to achieve objectives and goals set. Motivation
has been recognised in different ways according to (Business Dictionary 2017:
online) motivation refers to

“Internal
and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be
continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an
effort to attain a goal.”

Extensive
research has been conducted regarding this subject and many theories have been
designed which impact organisational behaviour.

1.2 Outline of Motivational Theories

This
essay will discuss a wide range of motivational theories and their applications
to organisations which choose implement them, theories include: Satisfaction
Theories which suggest an employee who is satisfied is more productive at work,
Incentive Theories propose, employees which are given a specified reward,  will work harder to achieve goals and Intrinsic
Theories state employees work best if they are set a valuable job and allowed
to get on with it, reward is from the satisfaction of work itself.

 

2.  Satisfaction
Theory of Motivation

2.1 Concept of Job Satisfaction

As stated by (Price, 2001) job satisfaction is the affective feeling a person
has regarding their job, this may be particular aspects of their job i.e.
working conditions, pay or their work colleagues. The extents to which the
outcome of a job an employee performs, meets or exceeds forecast, may decide
the level of job satisfaction.

“Job
satisfaction is simply how people feel about their jobs and different aspects
of their jobs. It is the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike
(dissatisfaction) their jobs.” (Spector, 1997, p. 2)

2.2 Two Factor Theory (Frederick
Herzberg – 1959)

Fredrick
Irving Hertzberg, a well renowned American psychologist, remains to be one of
the most influential and well-known theorists of motivation, his most
recognised work is the two-factor theory, Hertzberg suggests there are two main
aspects which play a part in motivating employees.

Hygiene
factors, these refer to extrinsic factors (i.e. safety, pay, working conditions
and benefits). If not present, this could lead to dissatisfaction and
demotivated employees, however these factors do not contribute to job
satisfaction as they are expected of the employer by staff. Hertzberg chose the
word “hygiene” due to its medical association, as hygiene helps to prevent
illness but does not improve health. Further into his research Hertzberg found
five important factors which lead to employee dissatisfaction administration,
supervision, salary, working conditions and interpersonal relationships. He
stated hygiene factors must be completed before motivating factors can affect
productivity and efficiency.

Motivators
are intrinsic factors (i.e. feeling proud of work, sense of accomplishment,
increased responsibility and recognition by managers). Hertzberg outlined the
biggest factor for job satisfaction is achieving within the work place as staff
motivation is the result of achieving success through enjoyable and challenging
work, therefore according to Hertzberg the five main determinants of workplace
satisfaction are: work should be meaningful and challenging, a sense of
achievement, recognition for achievements, increasing responsibility and opportunity
for growth and advancement. Implementing hygiene factors and motivators are
said to substantially increase motivation levels and job satisfaction. This
influential theory has therefore been adopted by business management and human
resources for over 50 years. (Longe, 2016)

2.3 Two Factor Theory Application and
Analysis

Herzberg’s
two factor theory of motivation can be applied by managers to the modern day
multicultural workplace, by implementing hygiene factors and motivators, the
workforce will become the most productive and happiest. Implementing this
theory will ensure employees feel supported and appreciated as well as prevent
job dissatisfaction. This can be seen by (Lundberg
et al, 2009) who found validity within the theory, as outlined in this study,
motivation at work comes down to satisfaction needs. As expected employee
motivation levels increased and hygiene factors had weak and insignificant
impact on motivation.

In contrast, there are flaws within this theory as (Alliger and
Taber, 1995) found there are wider aspects which affect motivation and job
satisfaction. Further outlined factors such as the level of concentration
required for the job, task importance and level of supervision had no impact on
job satisfaction. Although ths study found enjoyment towards a task lead to
overall job satisfaction, there was a low relationship found, which suggest
factors other than enjoyment do indeed contribute to how satisfied employees
feel at work.

 

3.  Incentive
Theory of Motivation

3.1 Concept of Incentive Motivation

An incentive can be explained as a factor which motivates an
individual to carry out a task as there is a reward to do so. Vast amounts of
psychological resarch has outlined that a person will be more inclined to do a
task which is positivley received and more likely to avoid tasks which are
negitavely received. In a business sense an incentive may be a benefit such as
job promotion given to an employee to recognise their ahcievements and
encouragement to do better. Incentives can be monetary or non-monetary,
provided to emplyees to help motivate them within the work place. (McLeod,
2015).
According to (Business Dictionary 2017:
online) an incentive is

“Inducement or supplemental reward that serves as a
motivational device for a desired action or behavior.”

3.2 Theory X and Theory Y Analysis
(Douglas McGregor – 1957)

As explained by (Gannon, 2013) Douglas Mcgregor a
social psychologist, in 1957 proposed a concept of Theroy X and Theory Y, these
are theories of motivation and management. Both theories have opposing set of
assumpitons of how employees are motivated from two differing mangerial styles.
McGregor states Theory X is managements duty to organise, control, direct and
modify employees behaviour so they do not become resistant to work.
Predominatly Theory X managemnt style belives that people are lazy and avoid
work when possible, people are irresponisble and therefore need to be
monitored, employees have little contribution to business goals. Overall with
Theory X the managers are in almost full control and the typical employee has
no ambition, does not take responsibily and hates work, the only reason they
work is soley for an income.

On the other hand Theory Y management style takes a more positive
position on human nature, as this management style suggests people will be able
to find their work enjoyable if their is acceptable working condtions, they
will feel motivation and fulfilment. Further suggests irresponible behaviour is
not innate, rather that people are able to control and direct themselves. Also
outlines employees have the potential to input intellectual contributions to
task given. Overall Theory Y challenges employees to to innovate ways of
directing and organising human effort. McGregor himself encouraged organisation
to adopt this approach, as he belived it could motivate employees the most.
Thus managers within organisations today should look to implement a Theory Y
management style as suggested by this analysis.

 

4.  Theory
of Scientific Management Analysis (Frederick Taylor – 1911)

As said by (Turan, 2015) Theory of scientific
management suggests workers need control and close supervison as naturally they
do not enjoy work, thus task should be broken down into smaller tasks by
managers. Employees should be provided with efficent training and equipment so
they can carry out set tasks, this theory pushes the concept of paying empoyees
based on how many items they produce or sell in a set time frame, therefore
leading to higher employee productivity levels as they are being paid by what
they produce.

Being applied in a business sense managers found postive
benefits as productivity increased and unit cost decreased. Taylors theory has been
linked with mcGregors Theory X as they both see employees as lazy and non
responisble. However this Taylors theory does have flaws, as empoyees were
dissatisfied doing the same tasks repeatedly which lead to strikes within
organisations.

 

5.  Intrinsic
Theory of Motivation

5.1      Concept
of Intrinsic Motivation

It is belived by (Deci and Ryan, 2000) Intrinsic motivation
refers to behaviours which are driven by internal rewards, the motivation to
participate in a behaviour comes from the individual themselves as it is
natuarally satisfying. An person who is intrinsically motivated will
participate for the fun associated with a task rather than for the rewards and
pressures associated. For example a person which does their job beacause they
enjoy it, find it interesting and challenging, are more inclined to come up
with innovative solutions. When persuing a job beacase you find joy from it,
you are intrinsically motivated as the desire to partake in the job comes from
within rather than an external reward such as money. However research has found
offering external rewards to an intrinsically motivated person can make the job
less intrisically rewarding, this is known as the overjustification effect.

5.2      Hierarchy
of Needs (Abraham Maslow – 1943)

(Kaur, 2013)
sates Maslow’s needs hierarchy was developed to help explain human motivation,
which can help to understand job satisfaction as well as be applied to the
working environment. As human beings we have needs which are required for long
term development, there are needs which are basic to everyone and without basic
needs nothing else matters, until these needs are satisfied, when satisfied they
are no longer motivators, thus we can move onto satisfying higher needs.

Maslow suggests a need is a condition or feeling which
influences behaviour over a long period and requires satisfaction, for example
hunger requires satisfaction and when satisfied it will decrease. Maslow
arranged human needs into a pyramid and named this the ‘Hierarchy of Needs’
this included (lowest needs to highest needs) Physiological needs which include
food, sleep, salary and shelter to sustain life. Safety needs which includes
safe working environment, job security and medical insurance. Love and
belongingness needs which include friends and colleges at work, working part of
a group. Esteem needs which includes recognition, reputation, achievement, self-respect
and attention. Self-actualisation needs which include truth, wisdom and meaning.
Maslow further suggest firstly lower level needs must be addressed before
higher level needs can be addressed, for example a person who has not fully
fulfilled physiological needs such as food, will not be worried about self-actualisation
and if they have a high status within an organisation.

5.3      Hierarchy
of Needs Application and analysis

Managers can adopt Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs to help
improve employee motivation and job satisfaction. Firstly, they will need to
ensure the basic psychological needs are met they can do this by ensuring that
employees are given a salary which is sufficient to pay for food, drink and
shelter.  Safety needs will also need to
be accounted for by managers, ensuring employee feel physically safe in their
work environment, as well as job security and providing company structures
and policies. When satisfied, the employee’s will feel as though they belong to
the workplace. Therefore, managers should provide team working, interactive
working environment and focus groups to share ideas, as this will create a
positive environment between employee and their workplace allowing them to feel
a sense of belongingness. Once satisfied, to improve employee esteem levels,
managers should include individual bonuses and employee of the month schemes, catering
for this employees will feel as though they are valued. Managers should allow
for employee self-improvement, where employees can grow and develop in order to
become everything they are capable of becoming. Progression contributes to the
process of self-actualisation. Managers should allow for basic needs to be met so
they can progress to higher needs and improve job satisfaction and motivation
levels. (Kaur, 2013)

However,
this approach to motivating employees is becoming less popular as it does not
account for major aspects which play a part in motivation, such as cognitive processing
of humans, in addition to this it lacks empirical supporting evidence. Moreover,
there have been faults within this theory, specifically within the final stage
of self-actualisation, as self-actualisation is difficult to measure, and there
is no clear definition of the term. (Spector,
1997)

 

6.  Conclusion

In conclusion motivating
employees is a key role for managers to achieve their goals,  based on the four theories discussed in this
essay, the way managers motivate employees today has changed drastically, as
many more factors are seen as motivating factors today compared to before, I believe
that managers should take away the key from each theory analysed and implement
them into their organisation as this will provide a structure to motivating
employees and improving their organisation as a whole.