Geological map is a graphical representation of geological features
and related interpretations on a horizontal plane. A geological section is
identical in nature to a map except that data are recorded and interpreted on a
vertical rather than a horizontal surface. Maps and sections are essential
tools in visualizing spatial, three dimensional, geological relationships. They
allow theories and controls to be applied and lead to predictions (or
hypothesize) being made on the location, size, shape and orientation of bodies.
Geological maps are the essential tools to aid in developing 3-dimentional
concepts about geology and relation of the structures to endogenic and exogenic
processes (Marjoribanks, 2010). John Proffett (Proffett, 2004), a widely
regarded and one of the most skilled geological mappers commented that
geological mapping is a method of recording and organizing observations, much
of its power in targeting lies in providing conceptual insight of value.
Making, or otherwise acquiring, a geological map is invariably the first step
in any geological investigation programme and it remains an important control
document for all subsequent stages to envisage the history of evolution
including geochemistry, geophysics, geostatistics.
several types of geological maps. With large-scale geological maps, the
geologist generally aims to perform and outline every significant rock and
structure of the outcrop in the mapped area. For that reason these are often
called “fact” maps, although “observation” or simply “outcrop” map is a much
better term. In a small-scale map, visiting every outcrop would be impossible;
generally (in context of Earth) only selections of outcrops are examined in the
field and interpolations have to be made between the observation points. Such
interpolations may be made by simple projection of data or by making use of
features seen in remote sensed images of the area, such as satellite images.
Small-scale maps thus generally have a much larger interpretational element
than large-scale maps.