George He also developed socialist ideas and political views,

 

George Orwell was born
June 25, 1903, to the name Eric Arthur Blair. Orwell was born in Bengal,
India however, a year after he was born his family, besides his father, moved
to Henley-on-Thames, England.

 Orwell went to a school on the Sussex
coast and graduated with two scholarships to Winchester and Eton. Orwell
pursued an education at Eton College where he learned writing techniques.
He also developed socialist ideas and political views, which would later
influence his writing. However, writing was not considered an acceptable
career. Orwell graduated with a degree in the police force. For five years
Orwell was an assistant superintendent of the police.

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  In
1929, Orwell abandoned his name and career and published his first
book, Down and Out in Paris and London, in 1933. Following
this came Burmese Days in 1934, A Clergyman’s
Daughter in 1935, and many others including his two most famous
books, Animal Farm in 1945 and 1984 published
in 1949. 

  All of Orwell’s
work’s we’re influenced by his own life and experiences such as, World War two,
his socialist ideas and his political views as well. Orwell continued
to write until he died of tuberculosis in 1950 at a hospital in London,
England. 

In
the novel, the citizens of Oceania are subjected to different mind control
techniques created by the party. In 1984, there are different layers to
the party’s psychological manipulation. On the surface lays hate week, the
telescreens, and threatening posters such as, “Big Brother is
watching you” (Orwell 4). The tele screens are located in every
individual’s room. They are designed to monitor behavior and scare the
individual into submission. They become a part of every individual’s daily
routine such as, morning stretches “6079 Smith W! Yes, you! Bend lower,
please! That’s better comrade” (42). The thought police monitor the
tele screens and watch for any emotion or though crime. Hate week is a
major event for the citizens of Oceania. During hate week the citizens come together
to create hate posters and slogans aimed at either the opposing country Oceania
is at war with or Emmanuel Goldstein. Some events that occur are public
hangings to which, have become a form of entertainment for the
children. The party also created what is known as the Junior Spies. This
brainwashes children from a young age to spy on their own parents and turn them
in to the thought police. Parsons two children are apart of the junior
spies league and in the end even outed their father, “She listened at the
keyhole. Heard what I was saying, and nipped off to the patrols the very
next day. Pretty smart for a nipper of seven, eh?” (268). Parsons mind has
been extremely infiltrated by the party that he is proud of his daughter
for turning him in. The psychological manipulation of the citizens goes deeper
then what may appear. Everything they know is a lie given to them by the party
and created by the middle class.  

This
theme expands from psychological manipulation and represents
the deepest layer to their mind control. The party controls every
source of information given to the public. It is the middle classes
job to change the information of the past to suit what the party would
like to portray. Winston’s job is to take information given to him and alter it
to fit the party’s wishes then burn the original. By manipulating the present,
the party is able to control the past and by doing so gives them the right
justification to their actions to which, the citizens of Oceania are unable to
protest against. They are unable to keep any documents, such as photographs
or legal papers. Do to this they are unable to think for themselves and
can only agree to what the party tells them. Oceania has three classes,
party, middle class and the proles. “The proles are the only way
of over throwing the party” (80). Unlike Winston the proles are able to be
free and act as they please. They are able to show sexuality and are even
allowed to commit crimes because “nothing was illegal, since there were no
longer any laws” (9). The only thing the party needed from the proles was
primitive patriotism. They believed everything given to them because they had
no evidence to prove otherwise. This theme continued throughout the novel and
became Winston’s downfall. After being placed under arrest Winston was
abused physically, mentally and emotionally. They manipulated his mind and
readjusted his way of thinking to the point where he became an empty
shell.  O’Brian would fill it in with lies such as, “2+2=5”
(334). 

Language
is the center of this novel to which, every other theme revolves around.
Newspeak is the official language of Oceania to which, every individual
use as their primary way to communicate, either through speech or
writing. Newspeak’s sole purpose is to minimize language to the point where
people are unable to say what they want to say. It takes away the ability for
those individuals to express themselves. Winston’s friend, Syme, works on the
eleventh edition of the newspeak dictionary. They are “… destroying
words-scores of them, hundreds of them, every day. They are cutting the
language down to the bone. The Eleventh Edition won’t contain a single word
that will become obsolete before the year 2050” (59).  This is
exactly what the party wants to happen. They want the citizens to not even have
the words to protest against them. The parties main focus is to have a society
that obeys and follows the rules set by the party. The individuals in the
society are stripped of their rights of free speech, expression, individuality,
and freedom itself. The use of ones own language is embedded into their
culture. When someone changes the structure of that language it removes the
individualism of the society as a whole. The individuals of Oceania are unable
to go against what the party has created. They do not have any evidence of
change and are limited to the vocabulary made for them. With all these
factors in play, the possibility of escaping or even changing Oceania is
impossible. However, through the organization of the brotherhood change could
be a possible outcome.        

 

Who Controls the past controls the
future. Who controls the present controls past. (Orwell 40)

This quotation directly connects with
two of the most crucially important themes in the novel. The theme of
controlling the past history of the society is evident from this quotation. The
party is in control of the present and is able to change the past and by
doing so imprisons the individuals of Oceania. Thus the psychological
manipulation becomes present. The party manipulated the past to the point where
the residents are unable to believe their own memories and have to except what
the party puts forth as the truth. This quotation only appears twice in the
novel however; it holds a significant amount of importance. Through two lines
it is able to present the truth behind the parties ways and how deep there
manipulation runs. 

War is peace. Freedom is slavery.
Ignorance is strength. (Orwell 19)

This quotation is the party’s main
message they spread across Oceania. This slogan is seen countless of times
throughout the book. Each individual part of the slogan has another meaning
behind it that keeps the party in power. ‘War is peace’ is used to keep the
people united against an enemy that does not exist due to the amount of
times the party changes the enemy. “… We were not at war with Eastasia
at all. We were in alliance with them. The war was against Eurasia.”
(282). ‘ Freedom is slavery’ relates to the fact that the party is striking
fear into the individuals of the society that if you stand alone you will fail.
Finally ‘ ignorance is strength’ drives in the final stack that since the
society is being deeply manipulated by their own government that, it makes
it easier to keep them under control.      

2 + 2 = 5 (Orwell 334)

This quotation relates strongly with the
theme of psychological manipulation. It signifies that even the smallest detail
can be changed and manipulated. It is seen throughout the book but comes more
into play during the final chapters. Winston is trying to latch on to any piece
of historical proof beside his own memory. When simply math information
suddenly gets change it can turn one against themselves, rejecting the correct
answer. It is a small quotation but powerful. In this futuristic dystopian
society Orwell created, evil will always succeed. Despite Winston knowing
the true answer to the question, he says what they want to hear. After one is
tortured to limits where it is impossible to come back from, Winston gives in. Resulting
in Winston becoming just another sheep of the suffocating society.  
   

We are the dead. Our only true life is in
the future. (Orwell 203 -204)

This quotation is depressing to believe
and think about, if one lived in this type of society, but also at the same
time necessary to understand. The proles are the sheep in this novel. They
follow, say, and do what the party wants from them throughout the novel. The
awoken ones who understand this are either apart of the party or like Winston.
Taken from Winston’s perspective it would be difficult to live in a
society where one is fighting, not for their own lives, but for the lives of
the future generations. It would be difficult to grasp the concept that your
own life cannot be saved and that in the end everybody is already dead.
Education of past history is crucial to learn and understand.
A society must learn from their mistakes to be able to have a
brighter future. 

Down with Big Brother (Orwell 21)

This quotation is one of the most
important to understand within the novel. This one line can get an individual
either killed or wiped from the society. This would be a troubling thought
for any individual living in the society that talk in their sleep. Parsons own
down fall was this very incident and with the manipulation of young minds, his
own children told the thought police of his so called crime. Just thinking
about the downfall of Big Brother is the biggest crime in this society one
could commit. These four words are the beginning of Winston’s troubling
journey into discovering the true meaning behind the ways of the society and
how ones own life can be as insignificant as ants. 

To be able to completely understand the
meaning behind the novel and why things happen in particular fashion, the
reader must know the concept of a dystopian society. Dystopian is a term
defined as a world where the negative and evil presents always come out on top.
This was the futuristic society Orwell envisioned upon Great Britain. During
the writing of the novel World War two was taking place. His society was
created from his knowledge of the war going on around him. It symbolizes that
during war one cannot understand anything that is going on outside of ones own
country. In those times all one could do was listen and follow the instructions
of the individual in the position of power. The society would put their trust
and faith into this individual in hopes of leading the society into a better
way of life. This is what Orwell captured in his novel. However, this dystopian
society does not want the best for the citizens but instead wants complete and
utter obedience. 

Orwell’s society is modelled from
real world events and locations. Orwell’s world is composed of three main
powers known as Oceania, Eurasia, and Eastasia. The society is known as airstrip
one located in Oceania however; we know it as Great Britain. This world is at
war, or so we believe, on a larger scale however, the novel focuses in on one
man changing life. Winston the main character in the novel and is like any
other citizen in Oceania. But in the beginning of the novel he can be seen
having his doubts about the leadership of the country and what is happening
outside the walls. Throughout the novel the war happening with Oceania is
constantly doubted. The party changes who the opposing nation is every few
years, given the similarities between the names of the three powers the
citizens are too far gone to even notice. However, Winston constantly drops
hints about his theory as to why the country is in fact not at war but Oceania
is bombing their own country to keep the people controlled.   

George Orwell’s main viewpoint was
centered on the political aspects of the society he was living in. He composes
this society in attempt to wake the nation of negative political power holders.
Orwell created a futuristic dystopian society to scare the nation into
understanding the dangers behind political influences. As also discussed in his
Animal Farm piece. Where instead of a farm he takes control of a bigger
challenge by tackling society as a whole. In the past, events such as
World War two took place, which influenced Orwell’s writing to a great extent.
Orwell was present during the Spanish Civil War in 1936 and also was
present to the rise of destructive political leaders such as, Stalin and Hitler.
After personal witnessing the after affects of war and the damages it
caused the people, Orwell took it upon himself to try to open the eyes of the
people to see the manipulation of the Government. “Every line of serious
work that I have written since 1936 has been written, directly or indirectly, against totalitarianism
and for democratic socialism, as I understand it” (Why
I Write). Due to his belief and understanding of the issues involving
politics, Orwell was determined to turn Political writing into art. 1984 is a
perfect example of his success in doing so. Orwell’s books are directly for the
people to gain knowledge and understanding, Orwell states, ” I write
it because there is some lie that I want to expose, some fact to which I want
to draw attention, and my initial concern is to get a hearing” (Why
I Write).   

The main characters in the novels are
each on their own isolated journey to discovery. Winston and Dunstan
both have been affected by the war. Winston, being a citizen, witnessing the
home effect of the devastation it is causing upon the society and Dunstan, a
solider, witnessing the front line affect and trauma it can cause an
individual. Political aspects also present their self in both novels. Winston
is being consumed into his own mind because of the manipulation the Government.
Whereas, in Fifth Business Boy is running to become a political leading. Based
on Boy’s past it is evident what type of leading he would have
become.  

These novels have a strong theme of
political influences in the lives of the main characters in the novels. Macbeth
is second in line to the throne and has to deal with the passing of his father
caused by his uncle’s hands. Deception and manipulation play a key part in
Hamlets life. In order to get the king to confess to the murder Hamlet must
manipulate the whole kingdom in thinking he has gone mad. Winston on the other
hand, is being manipulated by the very Government sworn to protect their
citizens. 1984, in a way, was even influenced by Hamlet “Winston woke up
with the word ‘Shakespeare’ on his lips” (36).    

In both novels there is no purpose.
Estragon and Vladimir throughout the novel do not possess a purpose in their
lives but instead are waiting for Godot to give them one. This is identical To
Winston’s own life. The proles are waiting for the Government to give them a purpose
in life. “We are the dead. Our only true life is in the
future” (Orwell 203 -204). Both novels capture the idea of
existentialism in their own unique ways. Nonetheless, both present the idea
that to exist without purpose is meaningless and that both of the main
characters need this purpose in order to continue living.