In enter rivers, lakes, oceans and other surface waters.

In
the last few decades, the rapid industrial development has added enormous loads
of pollutants to our water resources such as rivers, lakes and streams. About
70 percent of the Earth’s surface is the water that is the most precious
natural resource that exists on earth.
Water pollution might occur when a body of water is adversely
affected due to the addition of huge amounts of pollutants to the water system. Humans and
other organisms produce wastes product which finally will enter rivers, lakes,
oceans and other surface waters.

 

Domestic
and Industries waste products produce a variety of compounds might causes
decreasing of dissolved oxygen which is important to support aquatic life. The
major concern nowadays is the problems that related to the water pollution, especially in
developing countries because around 3.2 million children die every year because
of unsafe drinking water and also poor sanitation (Amir, 2016). The pollution
issues are become serious concern especially when the pollutions are involves
with the released of chemicals into our environment and disrupt the balance
ecosystem, threatening human health and polluting the water resources. Thus, steroid
hormone is one of the chemicals that released continuously by human and animal
into the environment and causing many bad effect to the ecosystem ( Lintelmann et al., 2003; Drewes and Shore, 2001; Shore and
Shemesh, 2003).

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Endocrine
disruptive compounds (ECDs) are a group of chemical that have the higher potential
 to the carcinogenic threats to the human
population and also  their ability to
interfere with hormonal system (Omar et
al., 2016).  The sources of the ECDs  are from the industrial chemicals and
household products that such as synthetic hormones, polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pharmaceuticals, and pesticides. These ECDs are
found in a high variety of products that are used in our daily life such as
detergent, personal care products and pharmaceutical.  Therefore, without realizing it humans are
keep discharges these exogenous pollutants every day into our environment. These
products that contain ECDs will be flow out into drain, wastewater treatment
plant and finally back into our water resource which is river and causes
threats to the safety of the aquatic and human environment.

 

 The main cause
of concern with the EDCs is their high tendency to accumulate in human and also
aquatic life that will cause the feminization and also infertility problems. At
certain doses the EDCs can interfere with the endocrine system by mimicking and
blocking the natural hormone (Komesli et al., 2015). Thus, the receptor are blocked and cannot be activated, even the
natural hormone are present. EDCs are the chemical that are suspected to be
related with altered of the reproduction function of female and also male (WHO,
2017). The effect from these problems, there are many cases of infertility
faced by couples especially in Sabah. Due to this problem, high number of fertility
services, fertility specialist Clinic and Fertility and Reproductive Research
Centre are found in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. Based on the previous studied, the study
about ECDs are still lack of information because of their trace amount
detection is still low.

 

          Two
groups of sex steroid hormones will be studied in these researches which are
progestogen (progesterone) and estrogenic (Estrone). Progesterone and estrogen
are the primary female sex hormone that is important to regulate growth,
differentiation, and also maintain the function of female reproductive tissues (Jeon, Hwang, & Choi, 2016). Concentration of estrogen is higher
just before ovulation and progesterone after the ovulation. If pregnancy does
not occur the levels of these hormones start to fall about seven days after
ovulation. Progesterone is important to maintain the lining of the endometrium,
if the level of progesterone is decreasing it means that the endometrium is not
longer to be maintained and the menstruation will occurs. Female usually excretes progesterone and estrogen hormone during
the menstruation and also during the pregnancy directly into the sewage system.
Moreover, the higher number of population in Kota Kinabalu contributes to the
large amount concentration of the progesterone and estrogen by female during
the pregnancy and menstruation period.

 

The widely used of the
contraceptive pills in order to control pregnancy also contributing the steroid
hormone into the water system because a large number of women nowadays are used
this method in order to prevent pregnancy and also this pill is easily to get
at the pharmaceutical stores. The contraceptive pills contain oestrogen or
progesterone in order to inhibit the production of follicle-stimulating hormone
(FSH) to stops eggs maturing in the ovaries. Women that are taking the
contraceptive pills in their daily days will excrete the hormone through the
urine. Thus, after leaving the body, these hormones are discharged into the
river through the sewage treatment plant and causing disruption to the human
and animal reproduction system.

 

Wastewater
treatment plants are known as a system that treats our wastewater and recycled back
to our water resource which is usually the river water. There are several types
of wastewater treatment plant in Malaysia which are namely Imhoff tank. Oxidation
tank, mechanical tank and network pump stations. In Malaysia, the major type of
wastewater treatment plant is mechanical plants and this public type of
treatment plant operates by using the mechanical equipment which is to faster
the sewage break down. The main sources of the influent in wastewater treatment
plant are originated from toilets, kitchen and laundry. The discharged of the
domestic wastewater contain various type of harmful chemical from the detergent
used for laundry, healthcare products, cosmetic products and pharmaceutical
that finally will accumulate in the sewage system from all houses. However, the
outlet from the wastewater treatment plant might still contain the conservative
pollutant that tends to be stable, long-lived compounds that persist within the
environment. These types of pollutant are not subject to the bacteria attack,
but are reactive in various way with living things such as human and animal
that causing the harmful effect (Geert, 2002) Hence, for assessing the steroid
hormone pollutants in WWTPs, it is important to determine their potential
pathways from the point when humans and animals release them up to the point
when they end up in different environmental compartments (
Mehdi, 2017).

          In
conclusion, a certain amount of the progesterone and estrogen hormone could be
detected in the influent, effluent and also the discharged of wastewater treatment
plant into the water system. Thus, by carried out this research about the
steroid hormone, the results from this research hopefully can give some awareness
and extra information about the harmful effect of the exposure to the high
concentration of steroid hormone in the environment. Hence, it can provide some
mitigation measure to overcome this problem in the future for the public safety.
Lastly, in the future, hopefully the high level students are more interested to
further this research about the steroid hormone in the environment so that
people can get more information about these harmful chemicals that causing many
bad health effects.