Introduction relate meaningfully with the society. WHO considers “preschool

Introduction

Childhood
is the period where every individual learns the basics of almost everything.
Child development refers to the biological psychological and emotional changes
that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence then
through adulthood, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing
autonomy. Every child has certain basic emotional needs, which thought to be a
satisfied to ensure his optimal development as an emotionally mature
individual, who can relate meaningfully with the society. WHO considers
“preschool to be the period between 4 to 6 years with generally encompasses the
time from onset of developing habit disorders”.

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The
developmental disorders are a group of conditions with onset in the
developmental period. The disorder typically manifest early in development
often before the child enters the  grade
school, and that are characterized by developmental deficit that produce
impairments of personal, social, academic etc. The range of developmental
disorder varies from very specific limitations of social skills or
intelligence. The neurodevelopment disorders frequently co-occur for example
individual with Autism often have intellectual disability and many children
with attention deficit disorder also have a specific learning disability. For
some disorders the clinical presentation includes symptoms of excess as well as
deficits and delay in achieving expected milestones, it can only diagnosed only
when the characteristic deficit of social communication are accompanied
excessively repetitive behaviours, restricted interest, and insistence of
sameness. So the developmental deficits and its symptoms in childhood can be
diagnosed at the time of pre-schooling because children shows most of their
interest, behaviour and skills during this period, and also many of the
developmental disorders have the onset during this period

Teachers
play a pivotal role in the development of children. Teacher’s skills in
managing and guiding the class are vital. This includes efficient daily
practices and the use of teaching materials, as well as controlling disturbing
factors and problem behavior within the class. The amount and quality of
interaction in learning and teacher-student relations also affect the
efficiency of learning. Interaction in learning includes, for example, feedback
from the teacher, various questions asked by the teacher and instructions
concerning knowledge enrichment, all of which affect the development of the
child’s information structures. Furthermore, social interaction outside of
teaching situations is particularly important for the development of the
children.   An effective teacher is one
who is proficient in planning and implementing teaching programmes in addition
to making sound decisions regarding  
geared towards catering for individual differences among learners. The
support that the child and his/her family receive from the school, as well as
the cooperation between the home and the school, is essential for the
assessment of learning disabilities and the implementation of intervention
strategies. Cooperation among students, parents, the school and the community
in general is vital for the well-being of the student. Moreover, the support of
the heads of school for the teacher helps both parties to develop good
practices and inspires a belief in the significance of their respective roles
at the school and its organization. Accordingly, advice and instructions from
such key figures can be helpful in teachers’ daily work, particularly in the
development of explicit decisions relating to work and teaching. The onsets of
many childhood disorders are during the period of pre- school so the primary
school teachers have a significant role in the identification of childhood
disorder’s symptoms in children. It is important to have knowledge about
childhood disorders among primary school teachers.

     
The support that the child and hisher family receive from the teachers
as well as having knowledge among school teachers about childhood disorders is
essential for the assessment of childhood disorders and the referral of
children. Developmental deficits and its symptoms in childhood can be diagnosed
at the time of pre-schooling because also many of the developmental disorders
have the onset during this period. Children show most of their interest,
behaviour and skills during this period. Cooperation among students, parents
and teachers in general is vital for the well being of the student with
specific disorders. Accordingly knowledge and instruction about various
childhood disorders can be helpful in teachers’ daily work, particularly in the
development of children with any development disorder. In this study the
researcher assess the knowledge of primary school teachers regarding childhood
disorders, because early identification of disorder is very important. if
someone failed to identify the developmental disorders, in future it may leads
to severe psychiatric illnesses. If the teachers are aware about the symptoms
and characteristics of childhood disorders, the disorders can be early
identified as possible, the teachers will accept the child without any
misconceptions, and the child will get special care and attention in the class
room.

Objective of the study

The main objective of  this study is to assess the  knowledge of primary school teachers about
childhood disorders before and after intervention.

Materials
and Methods

The
study intended to assess the knowledge of primary school teachers about  childhood disorders. The
study has carried out among the same group of respondents( Pre- Post). The level of knowledge of respondents on childhood disorders are assessed by using a self prepared questionnaire before and after intervention . The self prepared
questionnaire included of 105 questions. Hence the study is quasi experimental in nature. The researcher prepared an intervention package for implementing among the respondents.
The intervention dealt with childhood disorders(Attention deficit disorder,
conduct disorder, Specific learning disorder, Habit disorder, Autism), symptoms,
etiology and intervention etc. And methods to diagnose childhood disorders,
importance of having knowledge on childhood disorders and institutions which
deals with it.

Results
and
Discussion

The following data explains the results of the study carried out  in the aspects of Knowledge level on
childhood disorders among the respondents before and after intervention.

 Knowledge On Attention deficit disorder 

Level

Pre intervention

Percentage

Post intervention

Percentage

Less than 28

18

60

3

10

More than 28

12

40

27

90

Total

30

100

30

100

                          Table I: Knowledge
on Attention deficit disorder

Table
1 denotes the primary school teacher’s knowledge on Attention deficit disorder
before and after intervention.

The
mean value is 28. The mean value is calculated as bench mark because to
identify the knowledge level of respondents before and after the intervention.

Pre-intervention
results show that, 60 percent of respondents have less knowledge on Attention
deficit disorder. Post-intervention results shows that primary teachers with
less knowledge regarding Attention deficit disorder decreased to10 percent. 40
% of respondent have high level of knowledge on Attention deficit disorder as
before the intervention. After intervention the knowledge level increased to
90%. There is 50% increase to respondent’s knowledge on Attention deficit
disorder among children before and after intervention.

An empirical study was
conducted by
Hussein SA, Syed EU in
2010 to assess
the knowledge and misperceptions of ADD of primary school teachers in 35
primary schools. A demographic questionnaire was administered along with the
KADDS (Knowledge of Attention Deficit Disorders Scale) to 824 teachers at 35
selected schools. The response rate was 67%. The study findings revealed that
teachers overall knowledge of ADD was poor (42.6%). The study revealed that
overall knowledge of ADD is significantly related to teacher’s sense of self
efficacy. Both knowledge and attitude greatly determines the outcome of
the diagnosis and treatment of ADD. Hence it is highly important to identify the
knowledge of primary school teachers regarding ADD in children.

 

                        Figure 1:
Knowledge on Attention deficit disorder

 Knowledge on Conduct disorders

Level

Pre intervention

Percentage

Post Intervention

Percentage

Less than 35

15

50

2

6.67

More than 35

15

50

28

93.33

Total

30

100

30

100

Table 2: Knowledge on conduct disorders

Table
2 shows the primary school teacher’s knowledge on conduct disorder before and
after intervention.

The
mean value is 35. The mean value is calculated as benchmark to calculate the
difference between high and low level knowledge.      

Pre-intervention
results shows that,50 percent of respondents have less knowledge on Conduct
disorder. Post-intervention results shows that respondents with less knowledge
regarding conduct disorder decreased to 6.7 percent. 50 % of respondent have
high level of knowledge on Conduct disorder as before the intervention. After
intervention the knowledge level increased to 93.33%. There is 43.33% increase
to respondent’s knowledge on Conduct disorder before and after intervention.

The school environment is the most
important influence in a child’s life in promoting social, emotional and
academic development. Teachers play a very important role in identifying the
behavioral problems among children. Hence, the knowledge of teachers in this
area is helpful in identifying and analyzing what the problematic behavior
actually means to the individual child. This can lead to an early referral to
health services that can change the behavior and result in a more productive
adaptation for the child. This created an interest in the investigator to
assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge of
primary school teachers regarding conduct disorders among children.

 

                                   Figure 2:
Knowledge on conduct disorder

 

knowledge
on Autism

Level

Pre Intervention

Percentage

Post Intervention

Percentage

Less than 26

14

46.6

3

10

More than 26

16

53.3

27

90

Total

30

100

30

100

Table 3: Knowledge on Autism

Table
3 shows the primary school teacher’s knowledge on Autism before and after
intervention.

The
mean value is 26. The mean value is taken as benchmark to calculate the
difference between high and low level of knowledge.      

Pre-intervention
result shows that 46.6 percent of respondents have less knowledge on Autism. A
post-intervention result shows that respondents with less knowledge regarding
Autism decreased to 10 percent. 53.3% of respondent have high level of
knowledge on Autism as before the intervention. After intervention the
knowledge level increased to 90%. There is 36.7% increase in the respondent’s
knowledge on Autism before and after intervention.

A study was conducted by Lian WB, Ying SH, Tean SC, Lin DC, Lian YC, Yun HL to assess the preschool teacher’s knowledge, attitude and
practices on childhood developmental behavior among 503 preschool teachers aged
30 to 44 years. The result shows that pass rate of knowledge score of autistic
disorder was >40%. The study concluded that preschool teachers need more
care to improve their skills and special need education.

                                          Figure
3: Knowledge on Autism

 

 Knowledge On Specific Learning Disorder

Level

Pre Intervention

Percentage

Post Intervention

Percentage

Less than 33

15

50

0

0

More than 33

15

50

30

100

Total

30

100

30

100

Table 4:Knowledge on Specific learning
disorders

Table
4 shows the primary school teacher’s knowledge on Specific Learning Disorder
before and after intervention.

The
mean value is 33. The mean value is taken as benchmark to calculate the
difference between high and low level of knowledge.      

Pre-intervention
result shows that 50 percent of respondents have less knowledge on Specific
Learning Disorder. A post-intervention result shows that there are no
respondents with less knowledge regarding Specific Learning Disorder after the
intervention. 50% of respondents have high level of knowledge on Specific
Learning Disorder before the intervention. After intervention the knowledge
level increased to 100%. There is 50% increase in the respondent’s knowledge on
Specific Learning Disorder before and after intervention.

A study conducted
by Dalwai S, Kanade D, Sane M, Chatterjee S to assess the awareness and
sensitivity among parents, teachers, school management and counselors regarding
learning disability in 35 schools of Mumbai found that 69% of the schools do
not conduct learning disability training programmes for teachers. When asked
about the specific academic difficulties the child faces, 37% teachers were not
aware, 49% had minimal awareness and 14% had adequate awareness. 69% of schools
do not have a counselor   83% do not have
the facility of a resource room. 83% do not have a remedial educator. Only 11
schools of the 35 interviewed send children to the hospital for certification
and the remaining schools refer to any other source.

                    Figure 4 : Knowledge
on Specific learning disorder

 

Knowledge
on Habit Disorder

Level

Pre Intervention

Percentage

Post Intervention

Percentage

Less than 26

16

53.3

5

16.66

More than 26

14

46.6

25

83.3

TOTAL

30

100

30

100

Table 5: Knowledge on Habit disorder

Table
5 shows the primary school teacher’s knowledge on Habit Disorders before and
after intervention.

The
mean value is 26. The mean value is taken as benchmark to calculate the
difference between high and low level 
knowledge.      

Pre-intervention
result shows that 53.3 percent of respondents have less knowledge on Habit
disorder. Post-intervention result shows that respondents with less knowledge
regarding Habit disorders decreased to 16.66 percent. 46.6% of respondent have
high level of knowledge on Habit disorders as before the intervention. After
intervention the knowledge level increased to 83.3%. There is 36.7% increase in
the respondent’s knowledge on Habit disorder before and after intervention.

Figure 5: Knowledge on Habit disorders

.

Conclusion

The
childhood  disorders are usually first
diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. This study is about the
knowledge among primary school teachers about childhood disorders. The
researcher assessed the knowledge level of a group of primary school teachers
regarding Attention deficit disorder, Autism, Conduct disorder, Specific
learning disorder and habit disorders. The results of this study conclude that
most of the teachers do not have attended any kind of training programs related
to children’s mental health. The study reveals that the knowledge level of
primary school teachers is increased after giving intervention. The primary
school teachers need to have knowledge about childhood disorders because they
have an important role in moulding a personality or behaviour of a child.