of a protein called porin which allows protein through the membrane. It serves
as the barrier to outside body, example, the skin. Its function is to produce energy in a formation
of ATP through oxidative respiration process to maintain better concentration.
(Berdanier, 2005, P. 5).
is structure found in most eukaryotic cells with flattened membrane sacs that
looks like a pile of dinner plates. This is accountable for packaging and
processing macromolecules such as proteins lipids when synthesized before
reaching their destination. Its function is to support in distributing lipids
around the cell and the secretion of lysosomes.
(Robinson, 2003, P. 26).
is an organelle located near the centre of the cell which divides into two new
cells when reaches a certain size. The DNA and protein are arranged in a loose
and diffuse shape called chromatin which forms short, a rodlike structure
called chromosomes. Its function is to
ensure activities in the cell controlled and facilitate cell division. (Busch,
2012, P. 8).
is part between the plasma membrane and the nucleus. It has a complex mixture
of fluid and dissolved substances consist of protein tubules filaments that to
form cell’s internal cytoskeleton. It serves as a storage of energy, breakdown
of sugars or production of proteins. (Noyd, A, and Krueger, 2014, P. 64).
is the structure for making protein from messenger (mRNA) by linking amino
acids together. The ribosome then releases into the cellular cytoplasm to be
into a functional protein. Its function is to produce protein synthesis for the
cell by attaching to the ER. (Rodnina, Wintermeyer and Green. 2011, P. 83).
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
structure looks like a pile of folded paper dotted with other organelles called
ribosome. Its function is to generate protein synthesis with the presence of
ribosome.(Lea, Lourier and Moguigan. 2000, P.47).
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
appears flat because of the absence of the ribosomes which is not attached to
its surface. Its function is to produce the synthesis of lipids and also
metabolised by carbohydrates. (Lea, Lourier and Moguigan 2000, 47-48).
The plasma membrane
is the surrounding form of phospholipids bilayer with embedded proteins
permeable to ions and organic molecules in and out of the cell. It functions as
a gateway to allow or block entry of materials. (Bennett, 2013, P. 40).
Peripheral proteinis in the regions
of the lipid bilayer that sits on the surface of the membrane by noncovalent
ironic and hydrogen bond which can be removed by washing with a solution that
has high ionic strength example IM Nac5.
It does not mix into the membrane; however, regulate protein subunit of
many ion channels receptors. Proteins
gathered extract during protein purification procedure. (Luckey, 2014, P. 69).
supports the external surface of the membrane which has a fatty substance known
as the lipid. That is mainly made by the liver. This carried in the blood of
proteins called lipoproteins when two combines. Lipoproteins can be high
or low (LDL). Cholesterol are not water soluble; however, the lipid-like
characteristics make it hazy in a liquid that is essential for the cell
membranes by not making it too fluid, firm, and permeable to some molecules. (Griffiths and Berthold, 2013, P.122)
All parts of eukaryotic cells which have a specific membrane-bound structure,
shape, and functions are called cell organelles. These are found surrounded in
the cytoplasm to ensure that chemical going inside the cell do not interfere
with each other. (Reid and Leech, 2013, P.82).
(2a)The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a membrane system which
forms an interconnected network of cavities called cisternae. ER forms a link
between the nucleus and cell membrane.
Ribosomes are attached to the outer surface parts of the ER known as rough ER. Ribosomes are involved in
the biosynthesis of protein hence rough ER is found in the cell. For example,
enzyme belongs to the protein family which catalyzes a chemical reaction. Rough
ER transports these proteins by vesicles through the cytoplasm to the Golgi
apparatus. . (Lea, Lourier and Moguigan 2000, P.50-52).
(2b) Golgi apparatus is present in all cells except in
red blood cells. It a stack of flattened membranous which connect swarms of
tiny vesicles. Protein synthesized which is received from ER is processed in
addition to carbohydrate and lipid. These chemical modifications are important
for the transport of the protein across the
plasma membrane. It also packages hydrolytic enzymes into
membranous sac name Lysosomes which remain in the cell. (Robinson, 2003, P. 26
(2c) Mitochondria are
described as sausage shape organelles and are the powerhouses since they
convert energy to form ATP which is used by the cell as such muscle and liver
cells. Mitochondria wall is a double
membrane. The outer membrane forms a smooth envelope and is freely permeable to
most metabolites whilst the inner membrane has shelf-like protrusions name
cristae which give it a large surface area. It is also a site of oxidative
phosphorylation. Space within is known as the mitochondrial matrix as this
contains the enzymes, for example, B-oxidation of fatty acid. The ER contiguous membranes contain
phospholipid and glycosphingolipid and these synthesized enzymes to support