What it is
Cervical cancer is cancer of the cervix. Cancer begins when a body’s cells start growing and multiplying out of control. Any cells within a body can become cancerous with potential to spread to other parts of the body. Originating in the lining of the cervix or the womb, another name for this area is the uterine cervix. It connects the uterus to the vagina. Most occurrences of pathology start out in what is called the ‘transformation zone’ that have two cell types, glandular and squamous cells. These cells first develop precancerous changes that then manifest into dysplasia and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). It takes years for these changes to lead to cancer, however some cases have shown these changes taking place in as little as less than twelve months. There are several types of cervical cancer. The most common is squamous cell carcinomas followed by adenocarcinomas. The less common are mixed caricinomas/adenosquamous carcinomas.
Explain Signs & Symptoms
The woman’s abdomen may feel abnormal and myalgia may present in the anterior side. Women may experience vaginal discharge colored with blood outside of menstruation and irregular bleeding that may be tested by an endocrinologist, especially if bleeding occurs after menopause. Advanced symptoms of cervical cancer may include: a swollen leg, unliterally or bilaterally, weight loss, fatigue, pelvic/back pain, and trouble defecation/urinating. Anemia can be a side effect of cervical cancer along with dyspepsia.
A gynecologist may perform blood tests and a pap smear and if the test results come back positive, the doctor may choose to identify whether there is cancer present by performing a biopsy, performing an excision to identify dermal adnexal differentiation. If cancer is detected some preventative measures may be taken. These measures ensure cancer does not spread to other areas of the body. It may also allow for a higher chance of remission for patients.
Prognosis, treatment, population effected
Treatment from an oncologist may include ablation and women may choose abstinence to avoid potential complications. Clinical trials may exist in the future for future treatments. While there is no cure for cervical cancer, women can go into remission with radiation treatments and chemotherapy (Ranjbar, 2015). A common method of treatment is a hysterectomy that will eliminate any chances a woman has, to conceive or remain fertile.
Women are affected by this cancer. Women that smoke, have Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or Chlamydia infection…