: motion. The terminus of this kinematic chain of

: The basic idea of
this paper is to create a robotic arm which has the ability to perform multiple
function one at a time. The secondary objective behind our project is to make
such project available at cheaper cost.

A Robotic Arm is a type of
mechanical arm, having similar function to human arm with good flexibility for
industrial application. The links of such a manipulator are connected by joints
allowing either rotational motion or translational displacement. The links of
the manipulators can be considered to form a motion. The terminus of this
kinematic chain of the manipulator is called the clampers and it is similar to
human hand.

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The purpose of project to perform
various task using different modules, which includes – Robot is a derivative of Czech word ‘robota’ which
implies “forced laborer” then later a Russian comic writer Isaac Asimov conveyed
the word robotics. From there on various different developments are being
successfully done till date in the field of robotics in the form of teleported
manipulators, humanoids, micro robots etc. as the trend of the industry is moving
from the current state of automation to robotization. Thus, the robot
technology is advancing rapidly. Now a day the most commonly used robots in
industry is a robotic manipulator or a robotic arm. The end of the arm is
connected to the end-effectors. The end-effect or may be a tool and its fixture
or a clamper or any other device to do the work. The end-effect or is similar
to the human hand with or without fingers.                                                                      

Nowadays, robots
are increasingly being integrated into working tasks to replace humans
specially to perform the repetitive task. In general, robotics can be divided
into two areas, industrial and service robotics. International Federation of
Robotics (IFR) defines a service robot as a robot which operates semi- or fully
autonomously to perform services useful to the well-being of humans and
equipment, excluding manufacturing operations. These robots are currently in
use in many fields of applications including office, military, hospital
operations, dangerous environment and agriculture. On the other hand it might
be difficult or harmful for humans to do some specific tasks like handling explosive
chemicals, defusing bombs or in worst case, to pick and place the bomb away
from civilian areas and for repeated pick and place action in industries.
Therefore, a robot can be replaced human to do work.Main
blocks of this system consists of  SMPS
used as power supply, ATMEGA328 controller, 3 stepper motors, 3 Easy drivers
each connected to stepper  motors for X,
Y, Z axis movement respectively.From
power supply we get two voltages i.e. +5volt and +12 volt. 5volt which is
required to ATMEGA328, Easy drivers whereas +12volt supply is required to
stepper  motors. RESET is connected to5v
supply through 10k ohms resistors to pull up the voltage thus it act as a pull
up resistors.The Stepper motor
NEMA17 is a four phase, unipolar, permanent magnet stepper motor. It is a
standard size, 200-steps-per-revolution, NEMA 17 (1.7 in. square footprint, 5
mm shaft diameter), 12 V motor. This motor, like most stepper motors is a
permanent magnet motor. The Mosaic stepper is typical of common high resolution
motors – a full revolution requires 200 steps, while each step turns the shaft
only 1.8° for a full step, or 0.9° in half-stepping mode. This sized motor is
commonly used in household appliances, medical equipment, stage lighting
devices, and in various industrial control applications.The
G-code in form of NC file (Numeric Code) from computer is interface with
controller using FTDI 232 module i.e. serial to USB converter. The output of
FTDI is given to pin no.2 and 3 i.e. RXD and TXD pins of ATMEGA328. The output
of ATMEGA328 is given to three Easy Drivers.

The Easydriver V4.3
is used to drive the motor as the controller output power at its pin is not
enough to drive the motor. The
Easy Driver V4.3 consists of 16 pins. Four pins are used for 2 stepper motor
coil i.e. coil A and coil B. Two pins for input 5volt supply i.e. VCC and GND.
Three pins are used for STEP input, DIR; GND. STEP is used for micro stepping. The
DIR is direction input pin which will rotate stepper in respective direction.According
to the given dimensions Easy drivers or drilling machine will move. When
operation of motors is completed the dimensions on pc will roll of to again its
initial value i.e. set position or zero value.

Thus
the movement in required shape or direction can be observed at the clamper.
Also the clamper can be replaced by other modules in order to enable more
number of applications by the robotic arm for example 3D printing, Laser
engraving, cutting, etc.Thus the
movement in required shape or direction can be observed at the clamper. Also
the clamper can be replaced by other modules in order to enable more number of applications
by the robotic arm for example the clamper can be replaced by an extruder
assembly to enable 3D printing application by the robotic arm. Similarly the clamper
can be replaced by the Laser engraver to enable the laser engraving application
by the robotic arm. Hence, such kind of multiple applications requiring high
precision can be done by this robotic arm. Hence the designed Robotic arm will be
able to pick and place objects with high precision. Also the robotic arm will
be so flexible that the clampers can be replaced and convert the robotic arm
into an complex machine like 3D printer, Laser engraver, etc. STEP 1: Start the
procedure.

STEP 2: From serial
Interface execute G-Code command to provide translation to the robotic arm.

STEP 3: Define constant,
variable and directions for movement of robotic arm

STEP 4: If arm is not in
safe position stop the process

STEP 5: If arm is in the
safe position then select the axis of robotic arm to be moved

STEP 6: Get the value of
all the axis of arm in their respective buffer and run

STEP 7: If the target
position is reached stop the process else move to step 4The main purpose of the Robotic Arm is to provide multitasking
solution to increasing industrial need of performing various operations using a
single system. For emulating such a requirement it was necessary to work on the
various need and applications of industry and thereby designing the structure
of robotic arm according to it. The Robotic Arm is designed to perform
multitasks such as 3D printing, CNC, Laser engraving, pick and place. The
designing for Robotic Arm required studying GRBL controller an open source tool
for CNC.

      Thus, in this work we
proposed to design a project named Robotic Arm for Multifunction which will
help out the industry with multitasking solutions1.      
Medical – Pair of robotic
arm can be used for surgeries and even for burning the tissues affected by
cancer without effecting good tissues 2.      
Military – Robotic arm can
also be used in military applications for defusing bomb, tracking, etc.3.      
Industry automation – Multiple
robotic arm placed on assembly line can be controlled remotely by application
of IOT to increase productivity

Further whole system can be made so flexible
that it can be controlled even by an mobile phone over Bluetooth or wifi link