Sugar West Indian sugar were removed due to the

 Sugar cane
was one of the first crops domesticated by human beings. It was a giant member
of the grass family, with a stem as thick as bamboo but filled with sweet juicy
pith. The sugar revolution was influenced by the rising demand for sugar in
Europe. Sugar was used as a sweetener for tea and coffee. Although it cannot be
said to have an exact beginning, the decline of the Caribbean sugar industry
might be dated from 1747, when in Germany a chemist, Andreas Maggraf (1709-82)
showed that sugar in the root of beet is the same as the sugar found from cane.
It took another half-century for beet sugar production to begin on a commercial
scale, because it was still cheaper to make sugar from cane in the Caribbean
using slave labour, so beet only began to seriously compete with sugar cane
after 1870. The British government did not want its colonies making
manufactured goods to compete with products from England. They made a policy
called ‘mercantilism’. A country’s wealth depends on getting cheap raw
materials from colonies and then making manufactured goods and selling within
national borders, back to colonies and to other countries. The request for West
Indian sugar drastically decreases because of taxes on West Indian sugar were
removed due to the Sugar Duties Equalization Act, 1846. Duties were equalized
on British West Indian, British East Indian and foreign colonial sugar entering
the British market which meant the West Indian planters now had more
competition for markets to sell their sugar. The British West Indies could no
longer compete against larger suppliers such as Cuba and Brazil.

          After emancipation there was a shortage
of labour on plantations because the ex-slaves refused to return to plantations
to work under the harsh conditions of the planters and wanted a salary for any
work given. Those who left the plantations established themselves as peasant
cultivators, they planted small-scale market crops, provisions and kept
livestock. Skilled Africans moved to towns where they were employed as
blacksmiths and carpenters. Africans often supplemented their incomes by
working part time on the plantations but the planters found their labour
unsatisfactory since they were accustomed to cheap full time labourers during
slavery.

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          A number of planters were overburdened
with debt and forced out of production. Planters had borrowed extensively from
British merchants in order to increase their level of production and were
unable to repay their loans because of low profits. Banks and merchant houses
were hesitant about giving loans to planters due to the failing sugar economy. 1(Mahase
and Baldeosingh, 118-120)