Table salt is sodium chloride, a chemical compound with the symbol from the periodic element known as NaCl. Sodium Chloride has always been used to Preserve and flavour foods for hundreds of years. As a result, salt became a “must have” part of commercial transactions and was often used as money or barter. Back then people in Greece used to sell slaves for salt and that’s why the expression “Not worth his salt” was created. The people in Rome gave a small amount of money to those who were “Worth their salt” and Roman soldiers were given salt rations known as salaria argenta. Today, salt continues to be major of economic importance with lots and lots of uses other than flavoring and preserving foods. Sodium Chloride forms colourless, cubic crystals that are made up of large numbers NaCl Formula units, to give a 3 dimensional crystalline lattice in which each sodium ion is surrounded around its orbit by six chloride ions and each chloride ion is surrounded by six sodium ions. The strong electrostatic attractions between the positive and/or the negative ions, known as ionic bonds, hold the solid sodium chloride together. Sodium Chloride occurs naturally as the mineral halite, commonly called rock salt in large underground deposits. Seawater contains about 3.5% minerals dissolved, of which 2.8% is sodium chloride and the other 0.7 percent is primarily calcium,magnesium, and sulfate ions. Salt is also found in surface deposits in region subject to arid climates. Table salt is pure salt that has been chopped up into fine particles. Because salt tends to cake in climates that are humid, an anti-caking agent such as magnesium carbonate or calcium silicate is often added. Table salt can also be found as iodized salt with 0.1 percent potassium iodide by weight. Salt is a “must” in for life in general, and saltiness is one of the basic human tastes. Animal tissues contain way more salt than plant tissues do. Excessive consume of salt may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, in both children and adults. Mined salt is commonly refined in the production of table salt, it is dissolved in water,and purified via Precipitation of other minerals out of solution, and re-evaporated. During this same refining process it is also iodized. Salt crystals are translucent and also cubic like shaped. They normally appear white but impurities may give them a blue or purple colour. The molar mass of salt is 58.443 g/mol, The melting point is 801 °C. Its density is 2.17 grams per cubic centimetre and it is very soluble in water. When dissolved in water it separates into Na+ and Cl? ions, and the solubility is 359 grams per L. A lack of fluorine in a human’s diet is the cause of a high increased risk to dental caries. Fluoride salts can be added to table salt with the goal of reducing tooth rotening or something, especially in countries that have not benefited from fluoridated toothpastes and fluoridated water. The practice is more common in some European countries where water fluoridation does not happen. In France, 35% of the table salt sold has added sodium fluoride. Different natural salts have different minerals depending on their original source, giving each one of them a unique flavour.A natural sea salt from the surface of evaporating brine in salt pans is called Fleur de sel. In traditional Korean cuisine, called “bamboo salty” is prepared by roasting salt. Salts can appear to be transparent and clear (Sodium Chloride), Opaque and even metallic and lustrous (Iron Disulfide). In many cases, the apparent opacity or transparency are only related to the difference in a single crystal. Since light reflects from the grain boundaries (boundaries between crystallites),The bigger crystals tend to be transparent, while the (polyCrystallines) parts look like white powders. Salt is used to cure meat and fish by putting lots on them in brine, rubbing salt onto them, or injecting them with a salt solution. Bacon and cured ham are examples of meats preserved by the use of salt. Salt is also used to make pickles by putting cucumbers in brine. Salts of strong acids and strong bases ( strong salts) are not volatile and therefore have no odour whatsoever, while salts of could be either really weak acids or really weak bases (weak salts) may smell after the conjugate acid e.g. acetates like acetic acid (vinegar) and cyanides like hydrogen cyanide (almonds) or the conjugate base (e.g. ammonium salts like ammonia) of the component ions. Being in the first column, sodium is a member of the alkali metal family in the periodic table with potassium and lithium. Sodium’s big claim to fame is that it’s one of two elements in table salt. When combined to chlorine, the two elements make sodium chloride. What is the difference between Table salt and Sea Salt?Table salt is more heavily processed to eliminate minerals and usually contains an additive to prevent clumping. … Sea salt and table salt have the same basic nutritional value, despite the fact that sea salt is often promoted as being healthier.Sea salt and table salt contain comparable amounts of sodium by weight. Sea salt is produced through evaporation of ocean water or water from saltwater lakes, usually with little processing. Depending on the water source, this leaves behind certain trace minerals and elements. The minerals add flavor and color to sea salt, which also comes in a variety of coarseness levels. How does the recommended daily intake of sodium for a person change as the person ages? Americans eat on average over 3,400 mg of sodium per day, with intakes generally higher for men than women. However, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends that adults and children ages 14 years and older limit sodium intake to less than 2,300 mg per day, that’s equal to about 1 teaspoon of salt. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), almost half of the sodium consumed by Americans comes from the following foods, many of which are commercially processed or prepared: Breads and rolls, Cheese (natural and processed) Cold cuts and cured meats (such as deli or packaged ham or turkey) Mixed meat dishes (such as beef stew, chili, and meatloaf) Mixed pasta dishes (such as lasagna, pasta salad, and spaghetti with meat sauce) Pizza, Poultry (fresh and processed) Sandwiches (such as hamburgers, hot dogs, and submarine sandwiches) Savory snacks (such as chips, crackers, popcorn, and pretzels) Soups. Surprisingly, some foods that don’t taste salty can still be high in sodium, which is why using taste alone is not an accurate way to judge a food’s sodium content. For example, while some foods that are high in sodium (like pickles and soy sauce) taste salty, there are also many foods (like cereals and pastries) that contain sodium but don’t taste salty. Also, some foods that you may eat several times a day (such as breads) can add up to a lot of sodium over the course of a day, even though an individual serving may not be high in sodium. What is meant by a low-sodium food and a no-sodium food?Low-sodium foods contain 140 milligrams or less of sodium per serving and per 100 grams of food. Ordinary table salt (sodium chloride) is not the only source of sodium. It is also found in monosodium glutamate (MSG), sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), and sodium nitrate and occurs naturally in some foods. Very low sodium means that a food contains 35 milligrams or less of sodium per serving and per 100 grams of food. Sodium free or salt free items have less than 5 milligrams of sodium per serving. Light in salt means that the food has 50% less sodium than the regular version. Currency Contaminated with drugs.Money can be contaminated with cocaine during drug deals or if a person decides to snort cocaine with the money. But not all of the money is involved in drug use, they can get dirty with cocaine inside currency counting machines at the bank. When the machine gets contaminated, it transfers the crumbs of cocaine to the other bank notes. These bills have fewer pieces of cocaine. Some of the dollars in his experiment had .006 micrograms, which is several thousands of times smaller than a single grain of sand. For years, health agencies have told people to wash their hands after touching cash for safety reasons. Disease causing organisms like staphylococcus aureus and pneumonia causing bacteria have been found in paper bills. According to a 2002 study published in the Southern Medical Journal, 94 percent of the bills tested had potentially disease causing organisms. Heroin’s Mass spectrum /// Cocaine’s Mass spectrum From the two spectrums, you can tell that the spectrum of cocaine is way lower and I guess this means that is less dangerous when it makes contact with your system. Cocaine is an alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake. It is a benzoid acid ester that that was originally used as a local anesthetic, but is no longer used because of its potent addictive qualities. When given in high doses systemically, cocaine has mood elevating effects that have led to its widescale abuse. High doses of cocaine are also associated with toxic reactions including acute liver injury which can be severe and even fatal. Cocaine looks more crystalline and clear. It even shines a little when exposed to light. Kind of like heroin, this substance is sort of chunkier. Even though both heroin and cocaine can be both in powder form, heroin is different because it does not show the crystal like form. The texture is almost the same as powdered milk. whatsoever, the colour of heroin is white, but some different types can appear brownish. Here are some of the differences: Cocaine’s fatality is more by cardiotoxicity, where as heroin can induce respiratory depression. Cocaine does not have a cure, compared to heroin that does. Cocaine is a more crystalline powder compared to heroin powder. Heroin tastes bitter, and does not make your tongue go numb, contrary to cocaine. Cocaine is from the coca plant, where as heroin is from poppy flower plants. Cocaine is used most commonly as a stimulant, where as heroin is used as a depressant.Molecular Structure of Heroin /// Molecular Structure of Cocaine The molecular mass of cocaine is 303.353g/mol. Molecular Structure of SaltOther uses for saltSalt is the most effective, readily available, and economical highway deicer in use today and accounts for 8% of all salt production. In papermaking salt is used to manufacture caustic soda and chlorine. Caustic soda is used to process wood fibres and chlorine is used to bleach the pulp.