Communication requires teachers, school administration and students to assess
their needs and weaknesses as well as their strengths and skills in order to
deliver whatever is necessary to achieve the objectives of the course. These
objectives are the foundation of the curriculum.
Porter (2004) emphasized that a curriculum
is classified as Intended, Implemented, and Achieved. Intended Curriculum
establishes the goal, specific purposes or objectives of the curriculum. These
objectives serve as the guide for the implementation of the course; thus,
determining and evaluating the Oral Communication curricula which include the
course objectives of the subject in each college or university is necessary.
Implemented curriculum, on the other hand,
refers to the activities that are required in order for the students to achieve
the intended course objectives. The Achieved curriculum refers to the product
of the curriculum implementation. This indicates the students’ performance
relative to the objectives and activities of both the Intended and Implemented
In an oral communication curriculum, it is
important that a student is given ample venue where he can test and practice
his skills to hone his oral communication skills, and consequently achieve the
course objectives. Since students learn in diverse ways, teachers are therefore
encouraged to engage in activities outside class hours and utilize a wide
variety of instructional strategies (Kennedy, 2007).
In order for these activities to serve as
meaningful venues of learning, teachers and students are required to work
together as a team. They must develop the objectives of the activities together
so that they are both aware of the achievements the students have made.
Another way to ensure that the objective is
targeting the correct and appropriate learning outcomes, Bart (2010) suggests
“curriculum mapping” or “cross-curriculum development”. This process helps
faculty members design a curriculum that is also anchored to the objectives of
other courses. Moreover, this will enhance and reinforce learning and skills
development since the instruction and delivery of lessons are connected to
other lessons that students are currently learning.
Being a general education subject, Oral
Communication demands that its content is related to the topics in other
courses. Doing such will not only help students practice speaking skills but
also master other related lessons.
However, there are still problems that most
teachers encounter. Klionsky in Weimer (2010) contends that “curriculum
development no longer involves rational and integrated course design. Teachers
usually do not have an idea of what the students have learned in the previous
and other subjects.
Also, according to him, even new courses
are added based on the expertise of the faculty rather than on the needs of the
students. Klionsky (2009) thinks that “showing students how to learn (and love
learning) is more important that trying to (in vain) to fill their heads with
the latest esoteric facts.” For him, the purpose of a university education is
not to produce finished products. Rather, the purpose is to produce lifelong
learning who will continue to seek knowledge even after graduation.
Similarly, the purpose of Oral
Communication is not only to produce students who are good at expressing their
thoughts and feelings but also able to adjust their level of knowledge and
communication skills to various communication situations and to different
people of diverse culture, educational background, and social status. With
this, students can fully function as productive members of the society and as
individuals who are ready for the competitive worldwide community.
To summarize, oral communication as
a general education subject before the implementation of K+12 has underwent
revisions in order to provide education that would equip students with
knowledge essential in making them ethical, spiritual, moral, and proactive
citizens of the country. With the University of the Philippines as the
recognized leader in General Education, the course had been developed to abide
by existing laws- Batas Pambansa 232, 1973 Constitution, and 1987 Constitution.
With the creation of the Commission
on Higher Education (CHED) through Republic Act 7722, all higher education
institutions are mandated to improve the quality of tertiary education and the
percentage of graduates who pass licensure examinations, and heighten the
competencies of the students in oral and written communication. With this, the
implementation of oral communication course across all colleges and
universities is deemed even more crucial. More importantly, because of the
demand of national and international labor market, these tertiary institutions,
including the CHED itself, are pressed to produce graduates who are competitive
communicators and who are aware of the ethical use and importance of oral
Now that the course is relegated to
the Senior High School of the K+12 curriculum of the Department of Education,
there is a need to probe on the course even more meticulously in order to
ensure that high school students are “communicatively ready” before they enter
the formal tertiary education. With the use of the
Context-Input-Process-Product (CIPP) Evaluation Model of Daniel Stufflebeam,
the course is assessed if the needs are addressed, how these needs are
addressed, and if such attempt to address the needs is successful. Finally,
because CIPP Evaluation Model has been used both in the industrial and
educational sectors, there is a greater chance that the call to improve
tertiary education and develop citizens who are proactive, ethical, and
effective communicators is answered.
this in mind, the researcher evaluated the Oral Communication course using the
CIPP (Context-Input-Process-Product) Model of Daniel Stufflebeam. The results
of the evaluation were the bases for the proposed enhancement of the delivery
of oral communication course in the senior high school program of the
Department of Education.