The concrete. This study focuses on the applicable of

aim of the study is to examine the utilisation of industrial by-product to
produce the sustainable artificial aggregates in replacing the natural
aggregates for concrete production in Malaysia. In order to achieve the aim,
the objectives are shown as below:

To investigate
the optimum proportion of the POFA and silt in producing the artificial

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To evaluate the
physical and mechanical properties of aggregate fabricated from fly ash and
palm oil fly ash (POFA).

To investigate
the compressive strength of artificial aggregate concrete and compare with the
conventional concrete.

 This study investigates the
properties of artificial aggregates from POFA and silt based with various
percentages of these two elements and also the strength as aggregate
displacement for concrete. This study focuses on the applicable of waste
materials as construction materials in order to conserve the environment. At
the end of the study, the result gained may be different compared to other researchers,
this is because event small difference amount in POFA and silt composition will
affect the final result. Therefore, the scope of study is stated as below:

aggregates is produced using difference proportion of palm oil fuel ash and
silt with the optimum alkaline activators and the additional of lime as binder.

Mixture of
difference molarity of sodium hydroxide with sodium silicate based as alkaline
activator is adopted for the study to investigate the optimum mix for the
artificial aggregates production.

Air dry curing
is selected as the curing method to obtain the streght for artificial

properties for difference proportion of artificial aggregate as lightweight
aggregates is assessed such as compressive strength, impact value besides the
physical properties.

The best
artificial based aggregates from the experiment testing are chosen for further
concrete compressive strength evaluation.

 This study is intended to
evaluate the maximum percentage of POFA utilization for the production of
artificial aggregates which is able to provide an ideal choice for practicing
of sustainability and economical construction. There are studies about the POFA
as replacement for cement in mix of concrete, however, this study is focusing
on the artificial aggregate for beneficially replace the natural aggregate in
concrete production.

Additional lime is used to
enhance the binding property of artificial aggregate and the alkaline
activators are added to increase the strength properties of aggregate. The
following significance of this study is figured out the production of
artificial lightweight aggregate by different proportion of POFA as binder and
its ability in term of properties. Besides, the compressive strength of
concrete mix with optimum artificial aggregate is also evaluated.