The database security community has developed multiple techniques and approaches to ensure that there is data confidentiality, availability and integrity. The principal database security concepts include authentication, encryption, authorization and change trackingAuthentication:It is the process of identifying or confirming the identity of a person. The method of confirming the identity of an individual can be capitalized through validating their documents and through verifying the authenticity of the digital certificate. Authentication involves testing the validity of at least a specific identification. There are different types of identification, which includes single-factor verification, multi-factor validation, two- factor authentication and secure authentication. . Most of the applications use two-factor authentication, in which two independent factors are used to identify a user and at the same time two factors should not share a common vulnerability. In most of the two-factor authentication schemes passwords are used as the first factor and smart cards or other encryption devices are used as the second factor. Apart from the two-factor authentication there are many types of authentication methods like biometric authentication, Token-Based authentication and certificate based authentication. All these kinds of authentication play a similar role of confirming the identity of a person. Authentication has helped in confirming the identity of people and authenticity of products.Authorization:It is the progression of permitting or rejecting admission to a secure system. Mostly, the computer safety schemes are based on verification and authorization. It is the purpose of stipulating admits to rights to assets interrelated to data safety. Authorization determines what a user can do on the database. By authorization one can control to access the data from unwanted users. By using the GRANT, DENY and REVOKE we can give authorization on database objects. Authorization is vital in ensuring that security systems are kept secure and free from interruption from intruders.Encryption:Encryption is the progression of indoctrinating posts and data in such a way that only the accredited individuals can have access to the information or messages. The scheme of encryption employs pseudo-random key generated by algorithms to prevent intruders from assessing unauthorized data and messages. There are two categories of encryption including symmetric key and public key. The difference between symmetric key and the public key is that public key is free while the symmetric key is private and it is purchasable. Authentication is also performed using encryption. Decrypted key is required by to perform decryption on the encryption data. Change tracking:The trivial clarification provides mechanisms for applications. To ensure that implementation of the query for changes of data and access to information is related to changes, it is essential for application developers to implement custom change tracking. Applications capitalize change tracking in determining the type of rows that have been changed for a user table. To configure change tracking, there is the usage of SQL Server management studio. To track changes, there is the need of enabling change tracking and then would allow tables to be tracked within the database.